1996-97 Sustainable Agriculture Graduate Award
Jo Ann Baumgartner, "Bird and Arthropod Predation of Codling Moth in Sustainable Apple Orchards," $2,000. Codling moth is a worldwide pest of apples. Broad spectrum organophosphate pesticides are routinely applied to control this moth in conventional orchards; there are few sustainable options that reduce the overwintering populations of codling moths. Birds and some insect species are known to attack the dormant stage of the coddling moth. Many orchardists do not realize the volume of insects many birds are capable of consuming, or that the codling moth is eaten by 36 different bird species. A preliminary survey by this researcher showed approximately 40 percent of overwintering codling moths appear to have been attacked by birds . This research will continue the work with replicated, statistically valid studies of the interactions among the dormant codling moth, California bird species and insect predators.